Tag Archives: margarine

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Partially Hydrogenated Oils in Foods No Longer GRAS

By Food Safety Tech Staff
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On August 8, The FDA issued a direct final rule reflecting its June 2015 final determination that the use of partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs) in foods is no longer Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). The FDA had established January 1, 2021, as the final compliance date to remove PHOs from the food supply. This action addressed artificial sources of trans fat, with the understanding that trans fat will not be completely removed from the food supply because it occurs naturally in meat and dairy products and is present at very low levels in other edible oils.

The direct final rule:

  • Revises regulations to no longer include PHOs as an optional ingredient in the standards of identity for peanut butter and canned tuna
  • Revises FDA GRAS affirmation regulations to no longer include partially hydrogenated forms of menhaden and rapeseed oils
  • Revokes the regulation for partially hydrogenated fish oil as an indirect food substance
  • Revokes pre-1958 authorization for using PHOs in margarine, shortening, and bread, rolls and buns.

The direct final rule will be effective on December 22, 2023.

Susanne Kuehne, Decernis
Food Fraud Quick Bites

You Don’t Want Your Bread Buttered on Both Sides

By Susanne Kuehne
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Susanne Kuehne, Decernis
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Find records of fraud such as those discussed in this column and more in the Food Fraud Database.

Albania’s National Food Authority NFA discovered food fraud where Ukrainian vegetable fat labeled as margarine was sold as butter and buttermilk, in some cases claiming German origin. The NFA imposed fines and confiscated the fraudulent product. Since the importer did not sufficiently check the trade documents, they are seen as part of the fraud operation. The Albanian government will also increase punishment for those involved in food fraud in the future.


  1. “Margarine Sold as Butter, NFA Unveils Fraud Scheme” (May 31, 2019). Albanian Daily News. Retrieved from https://albaniandailynews.com/index.php?idm=31993&mod=2