Tag Archives: organisms

Alec Senese, Bayer Crop Science, Digital Pest Management
Bug Bytes

Did You Know a Cockroach Could Survive for a Month without Its Head?

By Alec Senese
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Alec Senese, Bayer Crop Science, Digital Pest Management

Like most insects, cockroaches have multiple nervous centers. When they lose their head, the rest of the body will continue to operate separately. In fact, a roach could live indefinitely without its heads if it didn’t need its mouth to eat and drink.

Register now for the complimentary webinar: New Technology’s Impact on Pest Management in the FSMA Regulated World | March 5, 2020 | 12 pm ETIn case you were curious, the following are five fun roach facts to keep in your back pocket for the holiday parties you’ll be attending this year. However, you may want to wait until after dinner has been served to bring these up in conversation…

  1. Roaches are incredibly fast little creatures, running about three miles per hour, or 50 times the distance of their bodies, in a single second. They are also the fastest in the animal kingdom at turning their body. They can make 25 turns per second!
  2. Cockroaches have been known to survive without important resources for much longer than most organisms. They can survive up to three months without food, a month without water, up to 45 minutes without air and can handle radiation levels up to 15 times higher than a human.
  3.  Not only do roaches spread multiple diseases that are dangerous to humans through their feces like Salmonella, shigellosis and hepatitis, they produce allergens that can trigger asthma attacks.
  4.  There’s a sci-fi like relationship between the cockroach and the jewel wasp. A jewel wasps sting can paralyze a cockroach long enough to administer a sting in the roach’s brain. This will give the wasp control over the roach’s escape reflex. The wasp then proceeds to drag the roach back to its nest, lay her eggs in the roach’s body and then allows her hatchlings to feed off the roach and build cocoons inside its body. Yikes. If there was ever a time to feel sorry for a roach, this is it.
  5. Ever heard of Louisiana’s cockroach tea? Cockroaches have been used for healing purposes in many areas of the world. They have been utilized for tetanus remedies in Louisiana, burn treatment and gastroenteritis alleviation in China.

The cockroach is currently being studied for potential uses in prosthetics, antibiotics and more.
The cockroach is an amazing creature, but they are less admirable when they inhabit areas where their presence can present risks to health and business.


  1. Smirnova, E. An Illustrated Guide to Cockroaches.
  2. How cockroaches could save lives”. (November 3, 2015). BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-34517443
Gregory Siragusa, Eurofins
Food Genomics

What’s in a Name? Probiotic Analysis and Genomics

By Gregory Siragusa, Douglas Marshall, Ph.D.
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Gregory Siragusa, Eurofins

In short, in the world of regulatory and probiotic microbiology the “name” is critical. Whether you are a probiotics manufacturer, blender or user, we are all likely aware that usage and sales of probiotic strains of bacteria and yeasts is burgeoning. Estimates of sales growth are impressive, with $24 billion and $5 billion in human and animal markets respectively projected by the year 2024.1,2Although the organisms approved as human and animal probiotic are a huge list, it is quite large and varied. Prove it to yourself by visiting your local grocery store or pharmacy and take a trip down the aisle where probiotic supplements are displayed. Read content labels and see if you recognize the microbe names. There are many probiotic organisms’ names that you are likely to be familiar with, most of which are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, we are quickly entering an age of more novel or even new probiotic organisms that may be unfamiliar to you. Some of which are not always as easy to culture as the LAB.3 On the same labels you may see claims of viability and cell population declarations (usually in CFU’s or colony forming units). Also, many probiotics are retailed in dry form, while others are marketed as liquids. As food safety scientists and practitioners, questions are probably popping into your head as to how probiotic species and populations are verified and how these various preparations survive expected shelf life.

Most will agree that before anyone starts consuming pills or eating foods with billions of viable bacteria, it is obviously a prudent idea that the manufacturer has the means to assure safety and quality. The details and scope of probiotic safety and microbial analysis are much too complex and broad to deal with in a few pages. For more details we direct the reader to two key publications.4,5

Identity, viability and populations are attributes largely measurable by methods that rely on culture, phenotypic analysis, genomics and combinations thereof. Here we will share a primer on genomic methods for probiotic analysis starting with a very basic aspect critical to all of microbiology—taxonomy and asking the “right” questions.

Why Not Just Perform a Plate Count? Revisiting Taxonomy

The process of identifying or classifying organisms, also known as the science of taxonomy or systematics, has sometimes been given less-than-stellar treatment among the community of microbiologists. We are frustrated when taxonomists change genus or species names just as people learned the old existing names. But every dog will have its day, and for microbial systematists, that day has arrived since application of genomic tools to the taxonomist toolbox has coincided with growth of the probiotics industry. Practically speaking, for the probiotic microbiologist, there is a lot more to a name than just nomenclature. Microbial taxonomy, and specifically bacterial taxonomy, becomes vitally important as more and more products are produced and as regulations increase in scope. Bacterial nomenclature is an ever-changing field, but at least naming has become more centralized with its own website.6

For the probiotic manufacturer, some important questions require answers: “Is it ‘my’ strain?”, “What’s in the mixture?”, “Is the label accurate?”, and “Are they alive?”. So why are we addressing this topic as a subject for Food Genomics? Confronted with the shear variety of bacterial types, it is easy to see why and how genomic tools offer a solution to this complexity. We now have tools that augment, complement, or even in some cases, replace cultural microbiology as a means to classify, identify and analyze probiotics (see Table I).7

 General Method Application Notes
 Targeted microbiome Genus/Species level resolution
Bacterial or fungal profiles (16S/ITS gene)
Suitable for multi-strain probiotic products
Unknown or QA analysis
 Shotgun metagenome Species/Possible Strain level resolution
Bacterial and fungal profiles in same assay
Well suited for multi-strain probiotic products
 Qualitative microarray Species/Possible Strain level resolution
Non-quantitative, descriptive only
Well suited for multi-strain probiotic products
 PCR Species/Strain, probe designed specificity
 qPCR Species/strain probe designed specificity
Quantitative against CFU standard curve
Can be designed to detect viability
 Flow Cytometry
(Gene Probe-Based)
Probe designed specificity
Quantitative against CFU standard curve
Viable, injured, dead cell detection possible
High throughput
Table I. Genomic Tools for Probiotic Analysis

“Why not just perform a plate count?”. Obviously plate counts have a pivotal role in the analytical microbiology of probiotics and will likely remain a gold standard for enumeration of viable counts. In fact, the unit of viable cell counts, CFU is the recommendation for use to verify probiotic populations.8 Unfortunately, most plate count methods do not name or identify the microbes we count as colonies. Occasionally, with precise selective and differential media the identity of the colonies growing on the plate can be reliably called, but misidentification is common. Other tools, such as PCR, are the tool of choice for amplifying specific genes from an organism’s DNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and flow cytometry both rely on a probe specific for a species or even a strain in order to estimate cell numbers, including viable cell counts.7, 9,10,11, 12

So how will modern genomics help you with the analysis of your probiotics? The following are some questions, examples and comments that illustrate genomic applications for probiotic analysis that you should be familiar with. These methods, whether sequencing-based, PCR-based or flow cytometry-based (using gene probes not antibodies), all require some form of sequence determination, detection/hybridization and analysis.

Continue to page 2 below.