Tag Archives: USDA

Recall

Undeclared Allergens Top Cause of FDA and USDA Food Recalls

By Food Safety Tech Staff
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Recall

Stericycle released its Q3 2019 Recall Index last month. The following are the key takeaways:

FDA Food Recalls

  • Recalled food units increased 319.5% to 8.8 million
  • 21.5% had nationwide distribution
  • Top food categories
  • Prepared foods: 24
    • Produce: 19
    • Flavoring: 14
    • Seafood: 12
  • Undeclared allergens were the top cause at 35.5%
  • Foreign material were top cause of units impacted at 47%

USDA Recalls

  • Decreased 25% to 24
  • Affected 537,000 pounds
  • Top Categories
    • Poultry: 33%
    • Beef: 21%
    • Pork: 12.5%
    • Seafood: 4.2%
  • However, this category came out on top for recalls by pound, at 22.6% of recalled pounds
  • Top Reasons
    • Undeclared allergen: 37.5%
    • Bacterial contamination: 21%
    • Foreign material: 17%
Cori Goldberg, Reed Smith
FST Soapbox

USDA Publishes Hemp Rules: Will It Impact Food?

By Cori Goldberg, Adam Brownrout, John Kendzior
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Cori Goldberg, Reed Smith

On October 29, 2019, the USDA released its long-awaited draft rule establishing a domestic hemp production plan, providing clarity to growers and ancillary businesses about how the USDA will regulate the hemp crop. The USDA, under authority provided by the 2018 Agricultural Improvement Act (2018 Farm Bill), was tasked with promulgating regulations and guidelines to establish and administer a program for the production of hemp in the United States. This rule has now arrived and been published in the Federal Register. The rule provides requirements for all state and tribal hemp production plans including requirements for testing hemp, licensing growers, disposing of non-compliant hemp, and collecting and storing information related to hemp production. The USDA will now accept public comment on the rule until December 30, 2019.

Although the USDA rule will greatly contribute to the expansion of legally grown hemp in the United States, this rule does not alter the law regarding CBD foods and CBD dietary supplement products. This is because the 2018 Farm Bill left intact FDA’s authority to regulate the sale and marketing of CBD foods, dietary supplements, drugs, and cosmetics, as those product types fall under FDA’s purview generally. FDA has allowed the sale of CBD cosmetics, with certain restrictions, and companies may submit CBD products to FDA through FDA’s drug approval process. However, it has maintained that the addition of CBD to foods and dietary supplements is illegal. Under the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), once a substance is approved as an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) in an FDA-approved drug, that substance may not be placed into interstate commerce in a food. Also under the FDCA, once a substance is approved as an API in an FDA-approved drug, that substance is excluded from the definition of a dietary supplement. FDA approved the pediatric epilepsy drug, Epidiolex, whose API is CBD. Therefore, FDA has concluded that CBD may not be placed into foods in interstate commerce and that CBD products are excluded from the dietary supplement definition and therefore may not be sold as dietary supplements. The USDA rule does nothing to change the legal status of CBD food or dietary supplement products. Thus, despite the expected increase of hemp availability following the passage of the USDA rule, CBD companies must wait for the FDA green-light in order to manufacture or sell hemp-derived CBD food products lawfully.Learn more about important regulatory & quality issues in the cannabis space from Cannabis Industry Journal

However, the rule does state that additional hemp is necessary to support the growing CBD market, and it notably put pressure on FDA by stating that if “FDA does not provide clarity about their plans for future regulation of CBD, there will continue to be uncertainty and downward pressure on the CBD portion of the hemp market.”

So what does the USDA rule do? Under the USDA rule, states and tribes will have the option of either submitting a proposed hemp regulation plan to the USDA for approval or agreeing to submit to the USDA’s general requirements. All state and tribal plans must include certain provisions, including but not limited to:

  1. Land used for production: State and tribal plans must identify a process for collecting, storing and maintaining relevant information regarding land used for growing hemp in the state. This includes information regarding the description, acreage, and boundaries of the farm land.
  2. Sampling and testing for delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): State and tribal plans must implement testing procedures to ensure that plants do not exceed THC levels above 0.3% (as provided in the 2018 Farm Bill). All testing facilities must be DEA approved, as non-compliant product with THC levels over 0.3% would be considered “marihuana” and a schedule 1 substance under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA). Additionally, laboratories will be required to report a “measure of uncertainty” in their testing, designed to provide a buffer for the potential variation in sampling and testing procedures. Accordingly, plants testing higher than 0.3% THC but still within the “measure of uncertainty” will be considered compliant.
  3. Disposal of non-compliant products: States and tribes must develop a procedure for destroying non-compliant cannabis containing more than 0.3% THC. Because non-compliant product is considered a controlled substance, all product must be disposed of in a manner consistent with the CSA. Therefore, product must be collected and destroyed by a DEA agent or law enforcement officer.
  4. Inspection of hemp producers: States and tribes must develop procedures for inspecting hemp producers on an annual basis and also for inspecting random samples. The state must also develop procedures to identify and attempt to correct certain negligent acts such as not obtaining licenses or producers exceeding acceptable hemp THC levels.
  5. Information sharing: State and tribal plans must include procedures for reporting information to the USDA. This information must be provided to the USDA within 30 days of receipt from the hemp producers and includes contact information for all hemp producers in the state, legal descriptions of the land used for hemp production, and the license status of all hemp producers in the state.
  6. In states and tribes without an approved or proposed plan, hemp producers will be subject to the USDA general plan. The general plan also provides similar requirements for the testing and sampling of hemp. The USDA will provide licenses directly to hemp producers in states without an approved or submitted plan as some states may not want to have primary regulatory authority of hemp. These states will essentially hand over regulatory responsibility to the USDA. These licenses will be available by application 30 days after the final rule is published. Notably, the draft USDA rule also provides that states and tribes are restricted from prohibiting the transportation or shipment of hemp or hemp products produced under a state plan, tribal plan or a license issued under the FDA. The interstate commerce provision should put an end to the arrests of those transporting legally produced hemp from one state to another. For example, in July 2019, a trucker was arrested and charged with felony possessions of marijuana and intent to distribute while transporting legally grown hemp through South Dakota (South Dakota still considers hemp a controlled substance).

So while the USDA rule is much anticipated and grabbed the attention of many when published, food and dietary supplement manufacturers, distributors, and retailers are still stuck where they were before. We will all continue to wait and see what FDA will do.

Resource

  1. “Establishment of a Domestic Hemp Production Program”. (October 31, 2019). Federal Register. Retrieved from https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2019/10/31/2019-23749/establishment-of-a-domestic-hemp-production-program.
Recall

Simmons Prepared Foods Recalls More than 2 Million Pounds of Poultry Products

By Food Safety Tech Staff
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Recall

Yesterday Arkansas-based Simmons Prepared Foods, Inc. initiated a Class I recall of 2,071,397 pounds of poultry products over concern of foreign matter contamination. The products, which were produced between October 21 and November 4, were shipped to Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Minnesota, Oklahoma and Pennsylvania.

Thus far there have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions related to product consumption.

In an FSIS news release, the agency expressed concern that some of the products may be frozen at institutions and is advising that the products be thrown away or returned to where they were purchased.

Susanne Kuehne, Decernis
Food Fraud Quick Bites

Fraudsters Who Deserve Prison Time, Too

By Susanne Kuehne
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Susanne Kuehne, Decernis
Food fraud, adulterated meat
Find records of fraud such as those discussed in this column and more in the Food Fraud Database. Image credit: Susanne Kuehne.

Uninspected and adulterated beef with a value of more than $1 million was sold to prison institutions in 18 states across the United States, a crime that carries a potential five-year prison sentence. The meat processor illegally used whole cow hearts and went a long ways to hide illegal ingredients from USDA inspectors.

Resources

  1. Erin Dooley, Public Affairs Officer, Office of the Inspector General USAO – Texas, Northern (September 24, 2019). “Meat Packing Plant Execs Plead Guilty to Selling $1 Million in Adulterated Ground Beef to Federal Bureau of Prisons”.
FDA

FDA Receives Record Turnout As Industry Eager to Discuss New Era of Smarter Food Safety

By Maria Fontanazza
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FDA

Industry from the public and private sector joined for a record turnout during the FDA public meeting yesterday to discuss the agency’s initiative, a new era of smarter food safety. The meeting, which was at maximum capacity for both in-person as well as webcast attendance, began with a call to action from FDA Deputy Commissioner, Office of Food Policy and Response, Frank Yiannas on the importance of all stakeholders in the industry to work together to drive the change. As Yiannas has previously commented, the food industry is in the midst of a revolution. The world is changing faster than ever, and the FDA is challenged with not just creating a safer, more technology-centric and traceable food system, but also getting there faster and more effectively. “I’ve always believed that words we use are important,” he said. As the day’s various discussions would be around the new era of smarter food safety, Yiannas gave the audience a definition to consider: “A new era is a memorable or important date or event, especially one that begins with a new period in our history.”

FDA held breakout sessions centered on areas critical to the initiative:

  • Tech-enabled traceability and outbreak response
  • Smarter tools and approaches for prevention
  • Adapting to new business models and retail modernization
  • Food safety culture

During each session, FDA facilitators asked the audience questions. The following are some key points brought out during the breakouts.

Tech-Enabled Traceability and Outbreak Response

  • FDA should consider all parts of the supply chain when thinking about traceability
  • Take into account considerations for sharing sensitive data along the supply chain
  • Speaking a common language and creating data standards, along with necessary minimum data elements for traceability is critical
  • Better communication related to data sharing as well as more meetings with FDA and stakeholders, especially during outbreaks
  • Show industry the ROI of the data
  • Provide a roadmap or recommendation for companies on where they can begin on their traceability journey
  • Request for unity across government agencies (i.e., FDA, USDA), as it would provide more clarity during an outbreak

Smarter Tools and Approaches for Prevention

  • Trust and transparency are key
  • Safeguards that address privacy concerns and liability
  • Data
    • Data sharing: Concern about retroactive investigations
    • Types of data: With the “treasure trove” of existing data out there, which is the most important and helpful in improving food safety?
  • Environmental assessments and root cause analysis—more dialogue between FDA and industry

Adapting to New Business Models and Retail Food Safety Modernization

  • More need for collaboration
  • Globalization and use of best practices
  • Establishing a common standard to level the playing field
  • Establish best practices for tamper resistance
  • The last mile: Food safety training for food delivery personnel as well as harmonization for last mile delivery
  • More consumer education

Food Safety Culture

  • Emphasis on behavior and humanizing the work: Focusing on what happens within organizations at all levels
  • Clarity and communication are important
  • Leveraging current food safety culture best practices as well as any relevant existing standards (i.e., ISO, Codex)
  • Partnerships are critical, finding the balance between compliance and collaboration

Other Factors FDA Must Consider

The FDA meeting also included panel discussions that drew out the realities FDA must consider in this rapidly changing environment. “These are exciting times and this initiative is recasting our thinking in a whole new light,” said CFSAN Director Susan Mayne, adding, “We need to get ahead of these challenges and not be in reactive mode.”

Consumer awareness and demands for healthy, locally sourced and minimally processed food, for example, are creating increased pressures on food companies and retailers. In addition, the digital savvy and diverse Generation Z (the population born between 1990 and 2010, which will comprise nearly 40% of the U.S. population by 2020) has buying habits and a strong desire for transparency that is shifting how food companies will need to do business, according to Mary Wagner, president of MX Wagner & Associates.

“Trust represents safety, quality and commitment on a much more personal level to our consumers,” said Dirk Herdes, senior vice president at the Nielsen Company, emphasizing the need to communicate with authenticity. “Consumers have never been more informed, but never have been more overwhelmed with information. It’s not data—it’s trust. Trust is the new currency with which we’ll operate.”

FDA and USDA also remain committed to building a stronger relationship between the agencies, said Mindy Brashears, Ph.D., deputy undersecretary for food safety at USDA. “As science moves forward, we have to allow our policies to move forward to keep consumers safe,” she added.

The comments shared during yesterday’s meeting, along with written and electronic comments (with a deadline of November 20), will be considered as FDA puts together its blueprint document for a new era of smarter food safety. More information about providing comments can be found on the Federal Register page.

Susanne Kuehne, Decernis
Food Fraud Quick Bites

I Have a Beef with You

By Susanne Kuehne
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Susanne Kuehne, Decernis
Food Fraud, Decernis, Prime beef
Find records of fraud such as those discussed in this column and more in the Food Fraud Database. Image credit: Susanne Kuehne

Over the course of three years, wholesale meat fraudsters in Brooklyn, NY, removed the USDA stamp on “Choice” beef and applied a counterfeit USDA “Prime” stamp to sell the fraudulently labeled meat at a premium price. A conviction can get the defendants a prison sentence of up to 20 years, even public health was not endangered, however, the USDA is taking integrity and quality of food very seriously.

Resources

  1. John Marzulli, U.S. Attorney’s Office (September 24, 2019). “Two Defendants Charged in Scheme to Sell Fraudulently Misbranded Beef Products”. Department of Justice, U.S. Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of New York
Cannabis, gavel

CBD Marketplace: How Should We Navigate It?

By Richard Blau
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Cannabis, gavel

Retired NFL player Rob Gronkowski, formerly of the New England Patriots, recently signed a deal with Abacus Health Products in Woonsocket, Rhode Island that includes buying a stake in the company and agreeing to promote its products. His decision reflects his belief that cannabidiol or “CBD” products made by the company under the brand CBDMEDIC can help others manage pain the way it has helped him.

Former world champion boxer Mike Tyson is developing a cannabis farm called “Cannabis Resort” for smokers and growers on his 40-acre land in California City. His company Tyson Holistic Holdings also owns Tyson Ranch, his own cannabis strain company and recently launched his CBD brand named CopperGel, which includes roll-on relief items.

Lifestyle maven Martha Stewart has entered into a deal with cannabis and CBD company Canopy Growth to be an adviser to the company. Her role will be to help it develop a new line of CBD-based products for both humans and animals.

Learn more about the direction of the cannabis industry at the 2019 Cannabis Quality Conference & Expo, which is co-located with the Food Safety Consortium Conference & Expo | October 1–3, 2019 | Schaumburg, IL The involvement of these and other celebrities in the emerging CBD industry signals an escalation in the evolution of cannabis as a legal consumer product. CBD products are sold today not only through licensed dispensaries and pharmacies, but also in specialty cafes, smoke shops, grocery stores and general retailers. This reflects the degree to which cannabis has become increasingly integrated into mainstream society.

Thirty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical cannabis products, and 11 states plus D.C. have legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults. Affecting industries as diverse as cosmetics, food and beverage and pharmaceuticals, the exponentially expanding CBD market has generated analyses forecasting that the collective market for CBD sales in the United States will surpass $15–20 billion by 2025, according to the firms BDS Analytics, Arcview Market Research and Cowen & Co.

Cannabis, gavel
Legal Recreational Use of Cannabis: Alaska, California, Colorado, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont and Washington, plus the District of Columbia
Illinois became the second most-populous state (after California) to legalize recreational marijuana in June
Vermont was the first state to legalize marijuana for recreational use through the legislative process. The state law allows for adults age 21 and over to grow and possess small amounts of cannabis. The sale of nonmedical cannabis is not allowed.

Yet, many government officials at the state and local levels, as well as industry members and consumers, justifiably question whether CBD products are legal. For example, in January 2019, New York City’s health department started prohibiting restaurants from adding any CBD supplement to food or drink, saying CBD was not approved by the federal government as a safe ingredient for human consumption. “The Health Department takes seriously its responsibility to protect New Yorkers’ health,” a spokeswoman said in a February 2019 email to media outlet CNBC. “Until cannabidiol (CBD) is deemed safe as a food additive, the Department is ordering restaurants not to offer products containing CBD.”

Is CBD legal in America? The answer is: “It’s complicated.”

The Details Behind CBD, Legalization and Marketing

CBD is the acronym for cannabidiol, a chemical compound found in cannabis plants—both hemp and marijuana. Unlike the chemical compound tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which also is found in those plants, CBD does not induce a “high.”

The main difference between marijuana and hemp is the amount of THC in the plants. If the cannabis plant contains more than 0.3% of THC, federal law defines the plant as “marijuana.” Hemp is a cannabis plant with less than 0.3% of THC. While CBD produced from hemp often is sold as an oil, it actually is a chemical compound.

The Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018 (commonly known as the “2018 Farm Bill”) removed industrial hemp and hemp-derived CBD from Schedule 1 of the Controlled Substances Act. Thus, by legalizing the production of hemp, the 2018 Farm Bill removed hemp and hemp seeds from the schedule of Controlled Substances maintained by the federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). That change effectively legalized hemp-derived CBD, which contains only trace amounts of THC, subject to federal agency health and safety regulations that govern all foods, beverages, supplements and other consumer products marketed in the United States. The new law also allows for increased research and product development of CBD extracted from hemp.

Not waiting for the regulators or scientists, enthusiastic entrepreneurs have produced extraordinary growth in the creation of markets for hemp CBD oil tinctures, topical creams, edibles, pet oil tinctures, vaping-liquids and a host of other consumer products purportedly containing CBD. The increase in CBD-related medical research, as well as the decreasing stigma surrounding CBD, has led to an industry boom, enticing celebrities and generating mass market growth for CBD products and sales.

According to predictive analysis and market research company Brightfield Group, $620 million worth of CBD products were sold last year in the United States. The same research team is projecting year-over-year CBD product sales growth in the United States of 706% in 2019 to reach approximately $5 billion, and sales of $23.7 billion by 2023.

Similarly, cannabis industry research firm BDS Analytics is predicting a compound annual growth rate of 49% by 2024 for all cannabis products across all distribution channels. The industry researchers also project that the CBD market, combined with other cannabis products, will create a total U.S. market of $45 billion for cannabinoids by 2024.

Another data group, New York-based Nielsen, estimates total sales of all legalized cannabis, which includes CBD products, reached $8 billion in the United States in 2018. According to Nielsen, U.S. cannabis sales should reach $41 billion by 2025, with marijuana products accounting for $35 billion, presuming 75% of the U.S. adult population has consistent access to legal marijuana by 2025.

In this context, there was only limited surprise in the marketplace when U.S. cannabis retailer Curaleaf Holdings Inc. disclosed in March 2019 that big-box retailer CVS Health Corp. will carry its line of CBD products. CVS, which is the largest drugstore chain by total sales in the United States, already has started to sell CBD products in eight states, including creams, sprays, roll-ons, lotions and salves.

Follow the link below to access page 2 of the article, which covers Regulatory Oversight and Emerging Enforcement.

Lab grown meat

“Real” Beef: It May Not Be What’s For Dinner Anymore

By Maria Fontanazza
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Lab grown meat

As the consumer craze over plant-based meat continues, cell-cultured meat is next on the list of alternatives to “real meat”. There are several factors driving this market, including increased demand for meat as the world’s population grows and becomes more affluent, and the concern that if more sustainable solutions are not implemented, there won’t be enough protein to feed the world’s population by 2050, according to Paul Mozdziak, professor at NC State University. Mozdziak, who presented his perspective on cell-cultured meat during the IAFP Annual Meeting last month, has been working in the cell-cultured meat space for 25 years. It’s not a new concept, he pointed out, but sustainability issues, concerns over the efficiency of the animal industry (i.e., the biological limits of animals), along with a waning enthusiasm in eating animals have sparked even more interest in animal technologies during the past few years.

Animal cell culture technology involves a controlled growth of animal cells from livestock, poultry, fish or other animals, their subsequent differentiation into various cells types, and their collection and processing into food, according to Roberta Wagner, assistant administrator, Office of Policy and Program Development at FSIS, USDA. Wagner shared the regulatory perspective on this emerging segment at IAFP. And although the session in which Wagner and Mozdziak spoke was titled, “Is Cell-cultured Meat Really Meat?”, neither of them answered this question. Rather, they discussed the status of the sector and the challenges ahead.

Scale Up

“The technology has been around,” said Mozdziak. “The issue is getting it to scale and myogenic to actually produce product.” Muscle cells want to attach to something. The process of making cultured meat involves isolating cells, getting them to grow in suspension and transferring them to a bioreactor to grow. In order to create a fully formed muscle, the cells needs to attach to a scaffold and differentiate, he explained. The bioreactor facilitates a sterile environment, but when scaling up, the challenge is the unknowns (which could introduce food safety issues) during downstream processing. “Once it’s out of the bioreactor and in a non-sterile environment, there are a variety of ways it can be contaminated,” said Mozdziak.

The production process could be cost prohibitive as well. “Currently, serum-based media cost $25 a liter; serum-free is $104 a liter. How much lower can we go from that?” said Mozdziak. “A kilo of turkey at ALDI is $6… therefore the media costs would have to be below $12 a liter for this to ever be profitable.”

How Will It Be Regulated?

In October 2018, FSIS and FDA held a joint public meeting to discuss the use of cell culture technology to develop products derived from livestock and poultry. The agencies also started talking about what regulatory oversight might look like. In March of this year the USDA and FDA reached a formal agreement on joint framework for regulating cell-cultured meat and poultry products. FDA will regulate the extraction of cells from live animals and jurisdiction will be transferred to FSIS during the cell harvest stage, and FSIS will oversee production and labeling. “The agreement roughly mirrors our jurisdiction of both agencies for traditionally produced livestock,” said Wagner. She added that regarding FSIS authority over cell-cultured products, the agency does not expect there will be a need for additional legislation nor will there be new regulation to inspect the products (Establishments that harvest cells or process the cells must comply with sanitation, HACCP and any other applicable FSIS regulations). Labeling for cell-cultured meat and poultry products must be approved.

Wagner noted two major challenges ahead in the federal regulation of cell-cultured meat. “We’ve received very little information about the process and technology being developed or used by cell-cultured meat and poultry manufacturers,” she said. “If industry doesn’t share such information, there could be a delay in review of products.” She added that the agency is encouraging industry to come forward sooner than later with this information. The second big challenge involves research and science gaps—more is needed to understand the risks.

So, is cell-cultured meat really meat? “Before we can answer that, someone needs to actually have a product,” said Mozdziak. He believes industry will get there in creating marketable cell-cultured meat, but there is no telling how long it will take.

Recall

Smoked Sausage Links and Organic Poultry Products Recalls Due to Foreign Matter Contamination

By Food Safety Tech Staff
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Recall

Last week USDA announced two Class I recalls involving possible foreign matter contamination. Perdue Foods, LLC has recalled about 31,703 pounds of certain ready-to-eat chicken products that may be contaminated with bone material. The products, which were shipped nationwide and include plastic trays of Simply Smart Organics Breaded Chicken Breast Tenders (gluten free and whole grain), and Chef Quik Breaded Chicken Tenders Boneless Tender Shaped Chicken Breast Patties with Rib Meat were produced on March 21. The full list of products is on the FSIS website and have the establishment number “EST. P-369” inside the USDA mark of inspection. Thus far there have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions following consumption of these products.

Johnsville, LLC has recalled nearly 95,400 pounds of its ready-to-eat jalapeno cheddar smoked sausage products after a consumer complaint involving green hard plastic in the product. The 14-oz packages of the product were shipped both nationwide and internationally, were produced on March 12 and 13, and have the establishment number “EST. 34224” inside the USDA mark of inspection. Thus far there have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions following consumption of these products.

magnifying glass

FDA, USDA Formally Agree to Regulate Human Food Made from Cells of Livestock and Poultry

By Food Safety Tech Staff
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magnifying glass

Today FSIS and FDA announced a formal agreement regarding the regulatory oversight of human food products derived from the cell lines of livestock and poultry. The agencies will jointly oversee regulation of these cell-cultured products to ensure both safe production as well as accurate labeling.

The agreement involves a joint regulatory framework in which the FDA will manage cell collection, cell banks, and cell growth and differentiation. During the cell harvest stage, FDA will transition oversight to FSIS and from there, FSIS will oversee production and labeling of the human food products that are derived from the cells of livestock and poultry.

“We recognize that our stakeholders want clarity on how we will move forward with a regulatory regime to ensure the safety and proper labeling of these cell-cultured human food products while continuing to encourage innovation,” said FDA Deputy Commissioner for Food Policy and Response Frank Yiannas in a USDA press release.